Astrocytes are important components of the central nervous system, which account for about 20%-30% of the total cells in the human brain. A large number of astrocytes have important physiological functions corresponding to their proportion, such as providing nutrients for neurons, regulating ionic and metabolic balance in the nervous system, and maintaining the structures of the brain and blood-brain-barrier. Furthermore, numerous studies have shown that astrocytes are actively involved in the development, maturation and pathological processes of the nervous system. This review gives a brief overview of the evolution and physiological functions of astrocytes, and the progress in the research of nervous system diseases.
The physiological structure, brain structure and function, reproductive physiology and circadian rhythm of non-human primates are highly similar to those of humans. Therefore, primates model has significant and unique advantages in mechanism research and drug development of neurological diseases. In recent years, a variety of monkey models of neurological diseases has been gradually established using drug induction, physical injury and gene editing technology, providing an important experimental model for cell therapy, gene therapy and development of new drugs. In this review, the characteristics of monkey models and the advantages in cell and gene therapy of neurodegenerative diseases and inherited neurodevelopmental diseases are summarized, and the advances in the use of monkey models for neurological disease cells and gene therapy is reviewed, hoping to provide references for further investigation of disease mechanisms and advancement of preclinical and clinical research of new therapies using monkey models.
There are more than 100 modifications have been found in RNA molecule, among which 6-methyladenine (m6A) is the most prevalent post-transcriptional RNA modification in eukaryotes, and it is also the hotspot of epigenetic research. With the development of detection technology and the rise of RNA epigenetics, the recent discoveries have suggested the regulatory functions of m6A modification in a variety of physiological and pathological biological processes. This review summarizes the functions of m6A methyltransferase, demethylase and regulatory proteins, highlights the recent progress in the biological functions of m6A modification, and the role of m6A modification in stem cell self-renewal and neural differentiation.
Objective: To retrospectively analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with hemifacial spasm who received botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection.
Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in 245 patients with hemifacial spasm who received BTX-A injection in a single center. The demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed, and the correlations with Cohen’s scale and the efficacy of BTX-A injection was analyzed.
Results: Among 245 patients with hemifacial spasm, 159 patients (64.9%) were females with an average age of 54.2 ± 10.3 years; 86 patients (35.1%) were males, with an average age of 48.3 ± 8.6 years. Left hemifacial spasm was seen in 137 patients (55.9%), including 97 females (61.8% of female patients, 97/159) and 40 males (46.5% of male patients, 40/86). According to Cohen’s scale, 51 (20.8%) had mild spasm, 194 (79.2%) had moderate-severe spasm; compared with mild spasm, patients with moderate-severe spasm had older age (P = 0.021) and longer course of disease (P = 0.012). The average injection dose of BTX-A in mild hemifacial spasm patients was 35.5 ± 5.2 U, and the average duration of efficacy was 145.5 ± 36.1 d; the average injection dose of BTX-A in patients with moderate-severe hemifacial spasm was 40.2 ± 5.8 U, and the average duration of efficacy was 137.8 ± 34.5 d. Four weeks after treatment, the total response rate was 96.3%, and the visual analog scale (VAS) score of treatment satisfaction was 75%.
Conclusion: The prevalence of hemifacial spasm in females is significantly higher than that in males, and the proportion of left side involvement is also higher than that of males; patients with moderate-severe hemifacial spasm accounts for a high proportion, and is related to clicking sounds in the ipsilateral ear. All patients had good response to BTX-A injection with less adverse reactions, so as to significantly improve the quality of work and life.
Post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) is the cognitive impairment or the aggravation of the original cognitive impairment after the occurrence of acute cerebrovascular disease. PSCI not only affects the quality of life of the patients after stroke, but also affects the patients’ judgment and compliance with the standard treatment, so it is an important factor affecting the survival time of the patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest progress in clinical manifestations, epidemiology, pathogenesis, influencing factors, diagnostic procedures, neuropsychological evaluation, imaging performance, and intervention and treatment of PSCI, focusing on the latest progress in the pathogenesis and imaging performance of PSCI, in order to provide references for the early diagnosis and prevention strategies of PSCI.